Education in Taiwan (2022/2023)

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06 07 A Introduction As one of the Executive Yuan’s subordinate agencies, the Ministry of Education (MOE) is the highest supervisory body for Taiwan’s education. The MOE’s mission is to enhance education in the country (including basic education, technical and vocational education, higher education, lifelong education, special education, teacher education, arts education, digital education, technological education, environmental education, and diverse education), as well as to cultivate international talent, promote sports and youth development affairs, and improve the general quality of education so as to increase competitiveness as a country. The MOE is led by the minister of education, who is supported by two political deputy ministers, one administrative deputy minister, and one chief secretary. The MOE comprises eight departments, three administrations, along with the other subsidiary agencies. Together, they are committed to ensuring the quality of education in Taiwan. The MOE also supports municipal, county, and city governments in educational affairs. B SDG 4 “Quality Education” is the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4), which aims to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education for all. SDG 4 seeks to make sure that by 2030, there will be free education available to all children at the primary and secondary levels regardless of gender, vocational education that is equitable and affordable, no disparities between genders and between the rich and poor, and equal access to quality higher education. Major Education Policies at Present 1 Action Plan to Address the Trend of Fewer Children To address the issues arising from Taiwan’s sub-replacement fertility rate, reduce the financial burden on parents, and implement the policy of “Childcare Support for Children Aged 0-6,” the Executive Yuan on January 29, 2021, announced the amended Action Plan to Address the Trend of Fewer Children whose three main objectives are extending affordable educare services, reducing tuition and fees, and doubling childcare allowances, in order to achieve such goals as “more vacancies,” a “lighter burden,” and “more allowances.” This is the most comprehensive childcare support in Taiwan in years. 2 Directions Governing the 12-year Basic Education Curricula The new curricula kick-started in SY2019 center on students and emphasize situated cognition, integration, exploration, and hands-on experience. Students are encouraged to take the initiative, engage the public, and seek the common good. With the vision in mind of “accomplishments for every child - nurture by nature and lifelong learning,” students will acquire the knowledge, competence, and attitude needed to adapt to life and handle challenges in the future. 3 The New Southbound Talent Development Program The MOE has based its “New Southbound Talent Development Program” on “The New Southbound Policy.” This program provides quality education, bilateral training for professionals, and bilateral exchanges between the youth academics and students. In the meantime, it aims to promote cooperation in education between Taiwan and its Southbound Policy partners as a means of deepening bilateral relations. 4 Bilingual 2030 The Bilingual 2030 policy is aimed at improving the nation’s English skills and, subsequently, its competitiveness on the world stage. Proficiency in English would help local talent broaden their C

09 08 worldview and enhance communication skills in an international environment. To that end, the policy presents a multifaceted approach, including the establishment of bilingual benchmark schools and colleges, a multidisciplinary education taught in English at senior secondary schools or below, recruitment of English-speaking native professionals, and implementation of self-learning and assessment systems in English. D Future Prospects Education is an endeavor to help children grow in a safe environment and find their anchors in life so as to have the courage to pursue and achieve their dreams. The 12-year Basic Education Curriculum Guidelines are a critical driving force behind the general education reform in Taiwan, where both teachers and students are moving towards a better future. The MOE will keep encouraging teachers to develop professionally, supporting them with necessary resources in classrooms, and upgrading the environment of learning for better quality education. The MOE carefully maps out policies that will shape education into a driving force for individual growth and a cornerstone of national development. In Taiwan’s current education system, students may study for up to 20 years, which includes six years of primary education, three years of junior high school, three years of senior secondary school, four years of higher education, one to four years for a master’s degree, and two to seven years for a doctoral degree. A Compulsory Education The nine-year compulsory education system, of which six years are for primary education and three years are for junior high school, was put into effect in SY1968. In order to offer more diverse development opportunities for junior high school students, technical education is included as well, in addition to the regular curriculum. Practical classes allow students to better understand vocational education and their future career choices. Senior Secondary Education Senior secondary education consists of three years of schooling and includes “general senior high schools,” “skill-based senior high schools,” “comprehensive senior high schools,” and “specialized senior high schools.” C Junior College Education Junior college education can be classified according to admission requirements into fiveB The Education Administration System Ministry of Education SDG 4 Administration Line Guidance Line Executive Yuan (Cabinet) Ministry of Education County & City Governments Municipalities National Schools at All Levels Bureau/Department of Education Bureau of Education National Social Education Organizations County & City Schools at All Levels Municipal Schools at All Levels Private Universities, Colleges & Junior Colleges County & City Social Education Organizations Municipal Social Education Organizations Private Senior Secondary Schools Private Junior high Schools, Primary Schools & Preschools Private Secondary Schools, Primary Schools & Preschools

10 11 year junior colleges and two-year junior colleges. Five-year junior colleges admit graduates of junior high schools, whereas two-year junior colleges admit graduates of skill-based senior high schools. D Teacher Education The teacher education system is comprised of diversified, reversed, and selecting methods. Teachers who teach in preschools, primary schools, junior high schools, and senior secondary schools are trained in universities of education or normal universities with teacher training departments or centers. These institutions are also responsible for providing inservice training and guidance for local educators. As of February 1, 2018, the training of teachers uses qualification tests before conducting internships and selects a necessary number of students through exams with just the right qualities, thus implementing a training system for the teaching and internship of homeroom teachers. University, College and Graduate School Education The maximum study period for bachelor’s degree candidates (including universities, colleges, universities of science and technology, and technical colleges) is four years (the Postbachelor Second Specialty Program is one to two years, while the two-year bachelor’s degree program is usually two years), and internships can last half a year to two years depending on the needs of the subject. For master’s degree candidates, the study period is limited to one to four years, and for doctoral degree candidates the range is two to seven years. F Special Education Pre-tertiary level special education is divided into three stages: preschool, compulsory education, and senior secondary education. The special education stages provide education at corresponding stages and schools providing special education may set up special education classes. Independent special education schools may also be built to accommodate students with multiple disabilities that require special support. To best meet the educational needs of special education students, the education stages, assignment students to classes and grades, settings and ways of implementing education, courses, teaching materials, and teaching and assessment methods must always incorporate flexibility. And adaptability, individualization, socialization, accessibility, and inclusion must all be part of providing special education and associated service measures. G Arts Education The goals of arts education are to cultivate artistic talent, enrich the spiritual lives of citizens, and elevate cultural levels. Arts education in Taiwan can be divided into professional arts education offered at schools, general arts education offered at schools, and arts education offered to the public. Supplementary Education Supplementary education aim to supplement citizens’ factual knowledge about life, raise educational attainment, transfer practical skills, cultivate sound citizens, and help society to progress. This education system offers supplementary compulsory education, supplementary advanced education, and shortterm tutorial education: all citizens who are past school age but have not received the nine years of basic education shall receive supplementary compulsory education. Citizens who did receive the nine-year basic education may receive supplementary advanced education. Those who wish to improve their factual knowledge and life skills can also receive short-term tutorial education. E H

School Age Normal Age 25 30 Higher Education Doctoral Program 24 29 23 28 Master Program 22 27 21 26 Dept. for PostBaccalaureate (1~5Yrs.) Tech. & Jr. Col. Education 20 25 Doctoral Program 19 24 Dept. of Medicine 18 23 Dept. of Dentist Master Program Open University Distance Education, Supplementary Education 17 22 Dept. of Architecture 16 21 Technical College Cont. College 15 20 (4Yrs.) (2Yrs.) 14 19 University & College Junior College Cont. Jr. College 13 18 (2Yrs.) (5 Yrs.) 12 17 Sr. Sec. Education Senior Secondary School Senior High & Vocational Special Education Cont. Sr. Sec. Education 11 16 1 9 0 1 1 4 5 Nine-Year Compulsory Education Junior High School Nine-Year Compulsory Education Junior High Supp. Jr. High School 8 7 1 1 3 2 6 11 Primary School Primary Supp. Primary School 5 4 1 9 0 3 2 8 7 1 5 6 Preschool Education Preschool Preschool Education Preschool 4 3 2 Note: The duration of master program is 1 to 4 years, doctoral program is 2 to 7 years. The duration of medicine school is shortened from 7 years to 6 years since SY2013. I n c l u d i n g n o n - s c h o o l m o d e o f experimental education. The Current School System 13 12 A General Information The infrastructure of a country and the development of its economy are dependent on the country’s cultivation of manpower and talent. This requires long term, continued investment and needs to start from the very bottom. The government set the length of compulsory education at nine years in SY1968. The 12-year basic education system was implemented in SY2014, helping to nurture and develop the manpower needed for economic growth. Quality preschool education is one major objective of our education policy. Kindergartens are set up in accordance with relevant legislation for children aged four and above before elementary school, and these institutions are supervised by education administrative authorities, whereas nurseries are welfare organizations set up in accordance with the Children and Youth Welfare Act. Nurseries admit children aged two to six and are supervised by social administrative authorities. The talks and negotiations for merging nurseries and kindergartens started in 1997 and culminated in the Early Childhood Education and Care Act passed on June 29, 2011, which became effective on Jan 1, 2012. Preschool and Compulsory Education Structure The Early Childhood Education and Care Act is a revolutionary move in our preschool system. B

14 15 After the Act took effect on Jan 1, 2012, nurseries and kindergartens were redesignated “preschools,” in which children from the age of two onwards are given complete and thorough education and care until they enter elementary school. This act integrates both the education and the care of young children into a single administrative system, putting into practice a toddler-centered strategy that focuses on the children’s best interests. Taiwan is also the first country in Asia to integrate the two systems. On April 26, 2017, the “Statute for Preschool Educators” was announced, clearly stating the rules for training, qualifications, rights and interests, administration, and appeals and dispute settlements in order to safeguard the rights of our country’s preschool educators. According to statistics by UNESCO, more than 40 countries in the world have a basic education system that exceeds 10 years. The main reason for this is that many underdeveloped countries have begun to see that basic education is linked to national competitiveness. Kick-started in SY1968, Taiwan’s nine-year Compulsory Education system is mandatory, free, and obligatory. Citizens from the age of six to 15 are legally required to receive education. The compulsory education is divided into two stages — the first six years at the elementary school level and the latter three in a junior high school. To enhance the development of national manpower, a 12-year Basic Education system was adopted in SY2014, a new landmark for our education system. Preschool and Compulsory Education Policies Preschooling is not compulsory in the education system of Taiwan. The education and care of preschoolers used to rely on, respectively, kindergartens and nurseries, most of which are privately-run institutions. Kindergartens and nurseries were supervised by different government agencies. As a result, each developed its own set-up requirements and regulations regarding personnel and curriculum. Preschool education and care were inconsistent across the board. To remove such inconsistency and to follow the international trend of combining preschool education and care services into educare services, Taiwan has integrated the two systems after 14 years of effort. In line with the Executive Yuan’s “Action Plan to Address the Issue of Fewer Children,” the MOE will implement the policy of “Childcare Support for Children Aged 0-6” and reach the goal of adding 3,000 classes, the biggest increase in Taiwan’s history, by 2023, a year earlier than originally scheduled. As a result, in SY2021, combined student capacity at public and quasipublic preschools could exceed 428,000. Since August 2021, tuition and fees for public and quasi-public preschools have been in the process of being reduced in two stages. from August 2022 onwards, parents will pay no more than NT$3,000 per month; there will be more benefits for families with two or more children; children from low- and middle-income families will enjoy exemption from school fees; and childcare allowances will double to NT$5,000 per month without a cap on the number of children in the family. These measures are to reduce the childcare burden on parents and to increase the overall enrollment rate. To establish an empirical and theoretical basis for the curriculum development of schools at the senior secondary level and below to improve the quality of and lay the groundwork for the future course planning, in November 2014, “Directions Governing the 12-year Basic Education Curricula” was promulgated, and curriculum guidelines for different fields have been announced in succession since January 2018, with the 12-year Basic Education curricula being followed in phases since SY2019. C

16 17 Social development has caused the population of the cities to grow, while businesses and people continue to move out of remote areas. The local economy in these areas has slowed down, jobs are hard to find, and children are often left to the care of grandparents. Education is where the values of social equity and social justice should be embodied. To enable each and every child to enjoy equal opportunities of adaptive development, the president promulgated on December 6, 2017, the “Act for Education Development of Schools in Remote Areas.” The Act specifies the length of a full-time teacher’s service, a flexible mechanism for hiring acting teachers and contract-based teachers, rewards and incentives to encourage long terms of service, methods of recruiting teachers and guidance counselors where they are needed, the importance of simplifying the administrative burden on schools, professional development opportunities nearby for the teachers, a supply of diverse learning resources for the students, and the provision of necessary facilities and equipment to schools in order to safeguard the students’ right to education in remote areas. “Social Care” is another focal point of Taiwan’s education policy. The MOE has established a fund-raising program called the “Education Savings Account.” So far, there are 3,700 schools permitted to apply for funding under the program. Businesses and individuals are encouraged to become long-term donors to the economically disadvantaged children listed on the website of the program, helping to ensure their right to education. K-12 Education Administration Interviewee: Yeh Hsing-hua Professor, University of Taipei The Ministry of Education has implemented a program that seeks to inject life into Taiwan’s education system by giving teachers a more prominent role and encouraging spontaneous learning. Now in its seventh year, the program incentivizes innovative teaching that uses diversified methods and brings out the characteristics of local schools. Resources are allocated to primary and secondary schools, with a special focus on remote areas, said project leader Yeh Hsing-hua, a professor at the University of Taipei’s Department of Learning and Materials Design. Rather than imposing specific directives and force-feeding knowledge, the approach encourages educators to devise their own curricula based on the needs of students and in line with the traits of the schools they serve, according to Yeh. Through improved interaction with students and exchanges with like-minded teachers from

19 18 Senior secondary schools are designed to cultivate the minds and bodies of the youth, to foster healthy civic awareness, and to lay a sound foundation for academic research and professional training in later years. Senior secondary schools in Taiwan include “general senior secondary schools,” “skill-based senior secondary schools,” “comprehensive senior secondary schools,” and “specialized senior secondary schools.” Students who graduate from junior high school or have an equivalent education level can gain admission to senior secondary schools through methods such as open admission and specialty enrollment. To graduate, students must complete required courses or obtain 160 credits. Steady Promotion of 12-year Basic Education 1 Introduction On September 20, 2011, the Executive Yuan approved the “Implementation Plan for 12-year Basic Education” and its accompanying measures.Thethreevisionsof theImplementation Plan are “improving the education quality of elementary and secondary schools,” “accomplishments for each child,” and “strengthening national competitiveness.” The five major principles of the Implementation Plan are “education without distinction,” “education according to aptitude,” “nurture by nature,” A various schools, participants can make the most of their expertise and share tips on fostering an enthusiasm for learning. The initiative has expanded over the years and currently covers a third of the country’s elementary and junior high schools, both public and private, and some overseas institutions. Not only schools in remote areas but also those in major cities have benefited from the approach. In 2021 alone, more than 1,600 applications to the program were submitted. To support the development of the 12-year basic education, one element of promoting more flexible curricula involves forming alliances between schools and museums, foundations, and other community resources. Participating rural institutions in particular are encouraged to organize outdoor excursions and invite guest instructors hailing from a variety of backgrounds and professions, according to the MOE-operated Curriculum and Instruction Resource Network. Among the achievements delivered so far are projects that teach children about Taiwan’s indigenous cultures and improve environmental awareness. At Taitung’s Donghe Elementary School, for example, students engage in a hands-on activity making traditional bamboo rafts with instruction from Amis tribal elders. The experience also serves to promote the tribe’s skills and the importance of marine ecology, Yeh reckoned. Guangyuan Elementary School, also in eastern Taiwan, draws on the wisdom of Bunun cultural traditions and creates an immersive environment where students can hunt, farm, and get acquainted with tribal religious rituals, among other activities. In Taipei, Zhinan Elementary School has made a name for itself in environmental education, an essential part of which is its river tracing trips, a rare activity for schools in Taiwan. Thanks to the program, teachers can cut the red tape and are no longer required to pen long reports. They are, however, asked to share the results of their creative projects on the Facebook page “Hand in Hand Wonderland,” a platform that chronicles what has been accomplished through the program.

20 21 “multiple development opportunities,” and “bridging junior high and senior secondary education.” The Implementation Plan has seven major objectives (10 projects) with 11 accompanying measures (19 projects); that is, 29 projects in total. The MOE not only works with municipal, county and city governments in the implementation of every project in the 12-year Basic Education, but also uses every opportunity possible to promote this new policy, so that the society will understand its importance. To keep the projects in the Implementation Plan advancing with the latest developments, the MOE held meetings to revise and improve the projects and sent the revisions to the Executive Yuan, which approved the revisions in October 2017. Beginning from August 2014, the 12-year Basic Education is provided in two phases. The first phase is the 9-year National Education, which is based on the Primary and Junior High School Act and Compulsory Education Act. According to the Acts, citizens between six and 15 years of age are to receive obligatory and compulsory universal education free of charge. The 9-year Basic Education is in principle provided by the government in general schools universally, with open admission based on school districts. The second phase is the 3-year Senior Secondary Education, based on the Senior High School Education Act, which provides that citizens aged 15 years or above are to receive voluntary, free education universally. Senior secondary education is provided by public and private schools, with open admission. Senior secondary schools offer diversified programs, including general education and vocational education. 2 Education Curricula Beginning in SY2019, the “Directions Governing for the 12-year Basic Education Curricula (Curriculum Directions)” have been applied in the first-year courses at primary, junior high, and senior high schools around Taiwan. The Curriculum Directions were devised according to the “Proposal of 12-year Basic Education Curriculum Development” and the “Curriculum Development Guidelines of 12-year Basic Education.” For the first time in the history of Taiwan, an integrated, cross-level, and interdisciplinary curriculum is in place to achieve the ideals of 12-year Basic Education, covering primary, junior high, and senior high schools. On June 1, 2016, the Senior High School Education Act incorporated Article 43-1 and Article 43-2. Accordingly, the MOE revised and announced the key points of the establishment and operation of the curriculum review committee. The role of the curriculum review committee now has a clearer legal basis and student representation is also included in the review committee. In accordance with the provisions of the Development of National Languages Act, national languages have been included in the compulsory curriculum, which will be put into practice three years after the implementation of the new curriculum guidelines. To this end, the MOE began its review process and preparation in 2020 and announced the revised general curriculum in December 2021. The accompanying measures include training in relevant laws and regulations, teacher abilities, promotion of curriculum directions, setup of facilities, and changes to the recruitment of colleges. Entrance exams and recruitment are also consistent with the spirit and design of the Curriculum Directions in order to help the new educational ideas materialize in the education and training system. 3 General Objectives A. To enhance basic knowledge level of citizens and cultivate modern civic literacy. B. To strengthen basic abilities of citizens and improve economic competitiveness as a country. C. To promote equal access to education to realize social equity and justice. D. To increase resources in senior secondary schools and balance educational development in regions, cities, and remote areas. E. To help high school students explore their aptitude and career interests and provide guidance to diverse higher education or future careers according to natural preferences. F. To relieve stress of students in academic advancement and help them to grow not only intellectually but also morally, physically, aesthetically, and socially. Science Education and Science Talent: 1 Organizing and participating in domestic and international mathematics and science competitions. A. Organizing national senior secondary school mathematics, science, and information subject competitions as well as science fairs for elementary and junior high schools. The goal is to foster an appropriate attitude and concept about science among the students, to inspire interests in scientific research, and to improve thepedagogyand itseffectiveness in senior high schools. B. Training and preparing students to participate in international Math and Science Olympiads and in the Regeneron International Science and Engineering Fair. Establishing an incentive system. 2 Subsidizing “Science Education Projects for Elementary and Junior High Schools”: To improve science education in primary and secondary schools, in SY2019, 72 schools received subsidies for their efforts in science education research, promotion, training, and extracurricular assistance. 3 “Projects of Scientific Research Training for Senior Secondary School Students” provide school-year-based subsidies for high schools to foster talent in science, discover students B

22 23 with potential in science, and cultivate future scientific researchers. 4 Opening “science classes” in high schools: Designing and offering science courses where students can learn to do research on their own and be creative. The goal is for students to not only develop scientific expertise but also humanism, and ultimately, become high-quality workers in science and technology who help our country enhance national competitiveness. 5 Organizing the selection mechanism and entrance examination for France’s “Classes Préparatoires aux Grandes Ecoles”: Between 2006 and 2020, 53 high school students were sent to Classes Préparatoires aux Grandes Ecoles in France as an academic exchange between Taiwan and France. 6 Planning science education tours for girls’ schools and students: Outstanding, young female science award winners are invited to high schools to speak to the students so as to spark the students’ interest in basic science, to encourage them to learn more about science and plan for a career in scientific research, and to inherit the spirit and accomplishments of their female predecessors. Second Foreign Language Education and International Awareness: The main goals of the “Program of Promoting Second Foreign Language Education at Senior Secondary Schools” are as follows: A. Encouraging and subsidizing senior secondary and higher education schools to participate. B. Creating an effective promotion mechanism for the second foreign language education system. C. Creating a second foreign language learning environment. Practical Technical Programs and Cooperative Education Classes 1 Practical Technical Programs Practical technical programs focus on practical skills and future employment. Students are trained in the programs on a yearly basis with skill sets that meet the actual employment requirements. In other words, one year of training will equip them with skills to perform well in one particular area. There are day courses and evening courses. The courses are annually structured and designed according to the department groups and internship subjects. Schools offer practical courses of specialized skills with the course levels advancing on a yearly basis and each level corresponding to a certain skill for employment. The “Implementation Scheme for Skill Development Programs Under the 12-year Basic Education (Including Academic & Vocational Subjects)” was revised and promulgated on July 30, 2021, and were applied in year-one classes in senior high schools around Taiwan in SY2022. 2 Cooperative Education Classes Cooperative education classes are designed to equip students with skills for various industries. Schools that work with businesses can send students on a “rotating internship,” a “ladder internship,” a “full-time internship,” or other forms of internships approved by competent authorities so that students may use skills learned at school in a workplace. Besides acquiring practical skills via cooperative programs, students will also receive allowances during internships. On the one hand, schools do not have to spend too much on equipment for students to acquire the latest skills. On the other, though not to be treated as free manpower, the interns do produce economic benefits for businesses. The cooperative mechanism is conducive to training the high-quality skilled labor demanded by the job market. Cooperative education is a win for the student, the school, and the business. Now, in response to changes in the industry and in order to protect the students’ right of education and training, the “Act of theCooperative Education Implementation in Senior High Schools and the Protection of Student Participants' Rights” was promulgated by the president and came into effect on January 2, 2013. A total of 13 provisions were revised on June 16, 2021. Paragraph 1, Article 10 of the “Senior High School Education Act” provides that to conform to the development of industries and provide students with workplace hands-on learning and cooperative education, senior high schools may conduct cooperative education programs; relevant matters regarding cooperative education shall be stipulated by other acts. Hence, the “Implementation Measures of Cooperative Education in Senior High Schools” were revised on July 28, 2021, and have been applied in year-one classes in senior high schools around Taiwan since SY2022. C D K-12 Education Administration

The Chung Shan Industrial and Commercial School (CSIC) underwent restructuring to become a vocational school in 1974. Since 1978, it has joined hands with industry players to provide training and classes that meet the needs of the job market. In 1966, it launched the “Industry-Academia Cooperative Education Program for Overseas Compatriot Students,” which has enrolled over 2,700 students from Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar, and Cambodia in its 14 sessions. The program has been so wellreceived that the school is considering accepting more applications from students hoping to study there, despite the COVID pandemic. A win-win for both students and industry players The program entails three months of classes and three months of internship on a rotating basis. Through the internships at Ministry of Education - certified companies and institutes, participants can gain realworld experience. They receive allowances, apply what they have learned at the workplace, and have the opportunity to enter tech universities under a MOE project - allowing them to pursue their studies while fulfilling their career aspirations, noted CSIC Principal Lin Chao-yi . Partnering businesses have benefited from the initiative by finding the talent they need in a three-year training collaboration, Lin reckoned. These include Panasonic, Walsin Technology Corporation, TECO Electric & Machinery Co., Gogoro, Hi-Lai Foods Co., Din Tai Fung, and Mentor Hair. Initially designed to nurture engineering talent, the program has expanded and now includes seven disciplines: business management, food and beverage management, automobiles, electrical engineering, mechatronics engineering, cosmetology, and information. Electrical engineering in particular will be an area of focus to reflect industries’ evolving needs, Lin said. Rigid regulation can be a constraint In 2013, Taiwan moved to better protect students’ rights with a new regulation on cooperative education between industry and high schools. The law introduced a cap on students’ working hours and bans businesses from charging interns fees other than labor insurance premiums. While it ensures the rights of students, the rule concerning working hours has been criticized for lacking flexibility and failing to address industry needs, Lin pointed out. More investment needed to boost school capacity The success of such talent incubation programs requires effort from the government, industry, and academia. Lin believes businesses stand to gain from increased exchanges with schools and greater commitment to helping the institutions upgrade, in terms of facilities and teachers’ skills. In November of 2021, MOE rolled out an updated version of the program that grants participants a monthly payment of NT$5,000 (US$179), in addition to other financial support, as an incentive. Lin welcomed the measure and expressed hope it will be better promoted than before. Going from only 47 students to over 9,000, CSIC has set an example for how academic institutions can thrive by working with industry players. Graduates will find themselves wellequipped as they explore their careers, he stated. 24 25 Interviewee: Lin Chao-yi Principal, the Chung Shan Industrial and Commercial School ! " #

$ 26 27 $ A An Overview The MOE has formed a Department of Technical and Vocational Education that is responsible for technical and vocational educational affairs in Taiwan and directly oversees and guides universities of science and technology as well as technology colleges and junior colleges. The education departments of municipalities are responsible for supervising technical and vocational educational affairs in secondary schools. The MOE’s K-12 Education Administration supervises national senior secondary schools, affiliated junior high schools, and private senior secondary schools outside of the municipalities. County and city education departments are in charge of supervising the vocational education affairs of county or city senior secondary schools and the technology education affairs of junior high schools in their jurisdiction. Technical and vocational education in Taiwan is provided in both secondary and higher education. At the secondary level, besides technical and vocational courses that are taught in junior high schools, there are also skill-based senior high schools, as well as technical and vocational courses in general senior high schools and comprehensive senior high schools. At the higher level, there are junior colleges (two-year and five-year), technology colleges, and universities of science and technology (two-year and four-year). These colleges and universities may recruit students for associate-degree programs, bachelor programs, master’s degree programs, and doctoral degree programs. Development of Technical and Vocational Education 1 Secondary Education A. Characteristics 1.Complete structure and system. 2. Students study in private schools is more than in public schools. 3. Adaptive school system and subject courses. 4. Job-oriented courses with hands-on training. B. Key points to be strengthened 1. Suitable concern for disadvantaged students. 2. Open admission and specialty enrollment. 3. Actively improve the quality of teaching. 4. Promote industry-academia collaboration. 5. Cultivate talent with high technical quality. 6. Stress the creative research and development of industry-academia cooperation. 2 Youth Education and Employment Savings Account Program To encourage general and vocational high school students to explore professional opportunities at work and internationally and to learn more about future goals, the MOE launched the “Youth Education and Employment Savings Account Program” in 2017. This project comprises two parts: the “Youth Employment Pilot Program” and the “Youth Experiential Learning Program.” With the former, recipients will receive a monthly subsidy of NT$10,000 for no more than three years as a form of support in employment, education, or starting up a business. Applicants to the “Youth Experiential Learning Program” will have the opportunity to explore life’s paths by volunteering and travelling. 3 Higher Technical and Vocational Education A. Characteristics 1. Flexible study and recurrent education: there needs to be the possibility for flexible switching vertically and horizontally between school systems, while channels must be kept open for those who want to return to school. Both the youth and those who have already entered the workforce should be able at any stage find ways of studying on a level suitable for their specialized skills. 2. Private schools should be excellent and active: private schools play an important role in the development of Taiwan’s technical and vocational education system, as they realize an even closer integration between technical and vocational education on the one hand and business on the other. B

$ 28 29 3. Multiple school systems in close touch with industry: in addition to junior colleges, technical colleges and universities of science and technology (including graduate schools), the higher technical and vocational education system also includes continuing education departments, inservice education programs and continuing schools, showing the diversity and flexibility of this kind of education. 4. Practicality and usefulness of schooling: technical and vocational education give the most weight to the practical spirit. There are multiple means of admission, such as special achievement-based admission, and recommendation and screening-based admission, which encourage talented students with technical superiority to continue their studies. 5. Outstanding performance in international competitions: a characteristic of technical and vocational education is “learning from doing.” Hands-on practice enables the students to accumulate experience, as theory and practice are equally important. B. Key points to be strengthened 1.Care of disadvantaged students 2. Admission quota control and multichannel admission 3.Actively raise the quality of teaching 4. Launch the evaluation of technical and vocational schools 5. Cultivate talent with high technical quality 6. Stress the creative research and development of industry-academia cooperation 7. Promote the “Sustained Progress and Rise of Universities in Taiwan” and develop the diverse characteristics of schools 8. Encourage universities to implement their social responsibility decisions 9. Establish incubators for regional industries and technologies to promote cooperation between academia and industry 10. Develop international cooperation and exchanges C Future Prospects Secondary and higher technical and vocational education should emphasize studying with practical action as its main element, offering the abilities necessary for practical work in the job market and linking up with local industries, cultivating relevant talent to promote local development and extension toward the international scene, and exchanging experiences and cooperating with the technical and vocational education systems of other countries. In addition, the education must take root, as well as implement the professional knowledge and curiosity of elementary and junior high schools in order to raise the attractiveness of technical and vocational education. The description is as follows: 1. To expand professional interest downward: Junior high schools can organize field trips and introduce the students to the workplace. They can also work with technical and vocational colleges and training institutions to open new courses. 2. To strengthen professional capabilities by practical orientation: The European Union (EU) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) promote learning with work as the main focus. This type of learning focuses on technical practice, and its core spirit stands close to professional practice. In other words, this type of learning integrates the resources of business and strengthens the concept of businesses and schools nurturing talent together. They can organize technical and vocational education together to make students understand what practical abilities are necessary, and they will supply the students with high-quality and highly relevant professional abilities. 3. To localize technical and vocational education and continuing education: the promotion of localized technical and vocational education should link up with local industry in order to cultivate the fit talent needed, which will in turn invigorate the development of local industry. 4. Reach out into Southeast Asia and move on to the global scene: international exchanges and cooperation in technical and vocational education can develop separately from the national, local, and school levels. On the national level, one needs first to collect and analyze information systematically about the area or country that one wants to communicate with before establishing cooperative relations. At the local level, exchanges can begin from the characteristics of local industry. As for the

Universities in Taiwan are increasingly viewed as “public entities.” In 2017, the Ministry of Education launched the “University Social Responsibility (USR) Program,” appointing National Chi Nan University (NCNU) professor Yuhlong Oliver Su as principal investigator. According to Su, the program focuses on localization and talent cultivation, aligning its principles with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to better connect with the global community. When combined with school administration, USR can become a driving force behind the sustainable development of universities and communities alike. SDGs guiding school administration towards sustainability The USR Program’s goals include helping colleges and universities form local connections, addressing local issues, setting sustainable development objectives, and increasing global visibility. Since these are in line with the 17 SDGs, the program adopted them into its second phase. Su believes the key to promoting the program is to focus on innovative courses, faculty communities, local participation, inter-university exchanges, and international connections in school administration. NCNU, for example, worked with the Shui Sha Lian Humanities Innovation and Social Implementation Research Center to advocate for diverse ways for faculty members to be promoted and collective learning groups. Through the process, the university was able to consolidate expertise and ideas, observe social needs, and provide appropriate guidance. Additionally, NCNU offered courses on social participation and the “Youth Innovation in HometownPractical ProgramandMicroprogram,” allowing students to directly address issues within the community and bridge the gap between theory and application. Su said it is also $ 30 31 Technical and Vocational Education in Taiwan Republic of China school level, the main emphasis should be on encouraging local students to expand their international perspective and achieve fulfillment. Since 2017, theMOE has responded to the “New Southbound Policy” by expanding its training of technical and vocational talent from the relevant countries, encouraging bilateral exchanges, launching the “IndustryAcademia Collaboration Program for International Students,” the “Short-term Program of Technical Training for Foreign Youths,” and the “Short-term Program of Enhancing Professional Skills for Foreign Youths” fromNew Southbound Policy countries. Young students from the New Southbound Policy countries are being accepted within the excellent domain of domestic technical and vocational schools to accompany the country’s development in order to cultivate the necessary talent. In addition, the MOE rolled out “Credit Courses and Programs on Southeast Asian Languages and Industries,” “Professional Skills Improvement Training for Children of New Immigrants,” and “Southeast Asian Language Courses” that recruit domestic and international students. The students will have the ability in language of New Southbound countries, professional English, global views, business management and trade abilities, and other professional knowledge needed by industry so that they will be pioneers of crosscultural exchange with New Southbound countries. " # %& ' ( ) ) ) * Interviewee: Yuhlong Oliver Su Professor, National Chi Nan University

A An Overview 1 Higher Education System Taiwan has excellent global competitiveness in spite of limited land and natural resources. The key reason is its quality human resources and higher education. Higher education institutions in Taiwan include two-year junior colleges, fiveyear junior colleges, and universities. Like most countries, the study period is four years for an undergraduate university degree, one to a maximum of four years for a master’s degree, and two to a maximum of seven years for a doctoral degree. 2 Faculty and Students The popularization of education has led to a rapid increase in the number of universities, colleges and students, although the figure has leveled off in recent decades. In SY2020, there were 152 universities, colleges and junior colleges, totaling 203,460 students. Reforms in teacher training have played an important part in the popularization of higher education. Significant improvements in teacher quality can be attributed to policy adaptations and the newly implemented evaluation system. Currently, PhD degree holders account for over 80% of faculty in universities. important to expand the scope of social participation and promote public awareness of local issues so the USR Program can be adapted according to local needs and universities’ sustainable development. By collaborating with local teams, the faculty and students of NCNU developed a PM2.5 detector to monitor air pollution, an LED light to help water bamboo farms save energy and reduce light pollution, and distance learning solutions to ensure a quality education for students in rural areas. Its local sustainability program has extended to rural parts of Southeast Asia. Through a joint effort between Taiwan and Cambodia, efforts to promote workshops on water resource management and cooperation attained various SDGs, including “no poverty,” “quality education,” “reduced inequality,” “sustainable communities,” and “clean water.” NCNU has highlighted sustainability on its campus by increasing its green space, using more green energy, and reducing waste. In 2021, the school was 31st in the GreenMetric World University Ranking. As all USR initiatives require careful planning that responds to industrial demands as well as the public’s various concerns, it is crucial for staff working on these programs to visit local communities and conduct field research, according to Su. This allows local voices to be heard, thereby enabling programs to identify problems and produce practical solutions. Response to COVID-19 pandemic: bridging the digital divide, promoting international alliances Since the USR Program’s launch in 2017, it has encountered many challenges originating from communities, schools, and society. Su said the program strives to assist and facilitate communication objectively without getting directly involved. In response to challenges posed by the pandemic, NCNU actively helped local businesses by establishing the “Hometown Cloud” online platform and training them on how to expand their markets online. During Taiwan’s local COVID outbreak in 2021, NCNU’s “rural education cooperation team” provided both online and inperson extracurricular mentoring to schoolchildren in rural areas to ensure that their education was not interrupted due to school closures and the shift towards distance learning. In 2021, the Center for USR also held a series of events called “USR’s Right Turn,” adding a section in the USR Online Expo dedicated to sharing local stories related to the pandemic and natural disasters. According to Su, it is important that universities be able to exchange experiences, share resources, and learn from success stories. Despite obstacles, the center promotes international exchanges. Recently, by cooperating with Humanity Innovation and Social Practice (HISP), the center coordinates academic and practical exchanges between universities in Taiwan and Japan, in local economies, disaster prevention, and aging populations. The center expects to replicate these experiences and promotes more international exchanges with other countries in the post pandemic era. + 33 32 +